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About this blog

We can only truly understand ourselves if we understand where we came from. Uploaded every morning, these stories honor the past and the LGBT struggle for equality.

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The Forgotten Gay Civil Rights Leader

Bayard Rustin was a mentor of Dr. King and an important organizer and activist in the civil rights movement. However, his influence is often minimized or ignored because he was gay.    

Bruce

Bruce

 

Banned Simpsons episode regarding homosexuality finally airs

https://youtu.be/cJxd4pO11AE On 2/16/97, an episode of The Simpsons that had previously been banned by FOX censors is finally aired. This was the first Simpsons episode to exclusively explore LGBT issues in an era when homosexuality on television was taboo. http://www.simpsonsworld.com/#/recaps... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homer's... http://www.nohomers.net/showthread.ph... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpDPm... 

Bruce

Bruce

 

Gay Marriage in the 2004 Election

https://youtu.be/3BoAaaOY7Gk Sources http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2012/05/the-facts-gay-marriage-didnt-tilt-2004-election/
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/04/politics/campaign/samesex-marriage-issue-key-to-some-gop-races.html
https://www.jstor.org/stable/30044275
http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6383353/ns/politics/t/voters-pass-all-bans-gay-marriage/#.WfqKWWhSzcc
http://www.pewresearch.org/2006/07/26/wedge-issues-on-the-ballot/
Music Credits Ice Flow by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1200088
Artist: http://incompetech.com/

Bruce

Bruce

 

Oldest LGBT Magazine Celebrates 50th Birthday

The first edition of The Advocate was published by the Personal Rights in Defense and Education (PRIDE) organization in Los Angeles. After the LAPD raided the Black Cat Tavern on New Year's Day 1967, PRIDE organized demonstrations against police brutality. In order to communicate with its members, The Los Angeles Advocate was published as a newsletter to organize and publicize PRIDE's activities. It was sold for 25 cents in gay bars across Los Angeles.  Within just a few months, two of the newsletter's editors purchased the paper from the organization for $1 and in 1969 it was being distributed nationally under the shortened name The Advocate. Over the years, the magazine continued to focus on the gay rights movement and was gradually accepted by the mainstream media. During the beginning of this century, The Advocate gained a lot of media attention with coming-out interviews with various celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres, Chaz Bono, and Jim McGreevey. But progress was excruciatingly slow. For example, though the magazine stopped printing sexually explicit material and ads a decade before then, the magazine was shipped in the mail in brown paper bags until 2007. Today the magazine is read by hundreds of thousands of people. Print and digital subscriptions are available at www.advocate.com. Sources https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Advocate https://www.advocate.com/ https://www.advocate.com/arts-entertainment/advocate-45/2012/08/21/45-years-stirring-pot http://thestarryeye.typepad.com/gay/2012/09/the-advocate-publishes-its-first-issue-september-2-1967.html   Image Credits "Black Cat Tavern" by Spenseratlas https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blackcattavern.jpg "Advocate 1st Issue" by the Kameny Papers http://www.kamenypapers.org/memorabilia/advocate1stissue-pg1-1967.jpg   Music Credits "Up Above" by Letter Box; accessed through YouTube Audio Library

Bruce

Bruce

 

The surprising decriminalization of homosexuality in the Ottoman Emire

On August 9, 1858, the Ottoman Empire implemented a new penal code as part of an overall period of reform that lasted nearly 40 years. This new criminal code omitted the crime of homosexuality, thus decriminalizing homosexuality in the Empire and its successor, the Republic of Turkey. That’s 124 years before you couldn’t be arrested for being gay in the UK, and 145 years before the United States!
Surprised? I was too. We constantly hear tragic stories of LGBT discrimination, persecution, and hatred in the Muslim world. It’s not an exaggeration to say that being gay can get you killed in some Muslim countries. So how can it be that the Ottoman Empire, the very epitome of Islamic power for hundreds of years, would not outlaw something that some modern Islamic governments think should be punishable by death? 
It turns out that this homophobia that we see is a relatively recent phenomenon. During the Islamic Golden Age (from about the 8th century to the 13th century), Muslim societies were remarkably accepting of homosexuality. 
Books that feature homosexuals, like Gulistan by Sadi and Nau rang-i ishq by Ghanimat, were required reading for Persian school children. One of the most famous classical Arabic poets, Abu Nuwas, wrote openly about homosexual themes. His works were celebrated throughout history right up until modern day. In 2001, the Egyptian Ministry of Culture gave into pressure from conservatives and burned over thousands of Nuwas's books. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, who created an empire encompassing what is today eastern Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The Sultan was reportedly in love with one of his slaves, a man named Malik Ayaz. 
At times during Islamic history when homosexuality was actually prosecuted, the standard for conviction was often exceptionally high. A homosexual act would have to have been witnessed by at least 4 individuals. During the Islamic Golden Age, punishment for homosexuality was incredibly rare. Right up until the 19th century, many gay Europeans would flee to Morocco to escape prosecution.
So what changed? Muslim disdain for homosexuality could actually be a result of the region's colonial history. When Britain would colonize an area, they would instill firm Christian traditions. For example, two years after homosexuality was decriminalized in the Ottoman Empire, the Indian Penal Code was implemented by the British Raj. Section 377 strongly outlawed homosexuality and has survived right up to today.
In Africa as well, many historians argue that intolerance for LGBT individuals is a product of colonialism. Like the Islamic world, Africa has a history of tolerance toward LGBT individuals before the colonial era. Almost 70% of all countries that used to be British colonies continue to outlaw homosexuality.
Of course, many of the statements in this blog are controversial and many people would likely disagree. And that’s okay. These issues are much more complicated than can be explored in a 5 minute video, but they are fascinating nonetheless. Conservatives and liberals alike, we all need to not view these issues from a 21st century perspective but rather to look at history with an open mind. Until we can admit that our preconceived notions may be wrong, we can’t fully understand the world.  Sources: "Africa: homophobia is a legacy of colonialism" by Val Kalende. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/30/africa-homophobia-legacy-colonialism "British colonialism and the criminalization of homosexuality" by Enze Han & Joseph O'Mahoney. Cambridge Review of International Affairs. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09557571.2013.867298 "Criminal Codes, Crime, and the Transformation of Punishment in the Late Ottoman Empire" by Kent F. Schull. Law Explorer. https://lawexplores.com/criminal-codes-crime-and-the-transformation-of-punishment-in-the-late-ottoman-empire/ "Everything you need to know about being gay in Muslim countries" by Brian Whitaker. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/21/gay-lgbt-muslim-countries-middle-east "Mahmud of Ghazni" on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_of_Ghazni "Muslims have a long history of accepting homosexuality in society" by Shoaib Danial. Muslims 4 Liberty. http://www.muslims4liberty.org/muslims-have-a-long-history-of-accepting-homosexuality-in-society/ "The books have been burning" by Daniel Schwartz. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/the-books-have-been-burning-1.887172 "The Tanzimat: Secular Reforms in the Ottoman Empire" by Ishtiaq Hussein. Faith Matters. http://faith-matters.org/images/stories/fm-publications/the-tanzimat-final-web.pdf "Where is it illegal to be gay?" BBC. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-25927595   Image Credits "İstanbul Onur Yürüyüşü Gay Pride" by Lubunya (CC 3.0) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:21._İstanbul_Onur_Yürüyüşü_Gay_Pride_(37).jpg "Abu Nuwas" By Jalil Gibran (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4487160  "Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni" by Maulvi Abdurab Ahadi (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sultan-Mahmud-Ghaznawi.jpg   Music Credits: "Swinging with the Sultan" by Doug Maxwell; accessed through YouTube Audio Library

Bruce

Bruce

 

Greg Louganis wins his first Olympic gold medal

This is the story of Greg Louganis. His story is one of overcoming obstacles and living an authentic life no matter what fate throws your way.   Even from birth, Greg had a difficult life. Born to teenage parents who put him up for adoption, he was adopted into the Louganis family in the suburbs of San Diego, California. Years later Greg would talk about how his adoptive father was an alcoholic and was abusive. He suffered from dyslexia, though remained undiagnosed and therefore he was not helped. He grew up feeling unwanted, stupid, and afraid of everything.   But Greg’s inner spirit wouldn’t allow him to give up. He threw himself into improving his athletic skills. When he was afraid of something, he forced himself to overcome it. One of my favorite examples: As a kid, Greg was afraid of snakes. It's a pretty common fear that most people just live with. However, Greg wasn't about to let an irrational fear overcome him. He saved up his money and bought a boa constrictor. Yes, a boa constrictor. One of these things! He forced himself to face his fear until he had conquered it.   At the 1976 Olympics in Montreal, Greg represented the United States at just 16 years old. At the beginning of the games, he was suffering a toothache and needed to go to the dentist. However, for fear of failing the drug test and being unable to compete, he insisted that the dentist drill without any numbing or pain medication. Ouch! The very next day, he won a silver medal. Even at 16, Greg garnered the respect his most experienced competitors. At the medal ceremony, the Italian diver that won the gold remarked to Greg that, “In four years, you’ll be up here.”   And that probably would have been accurate except that the United States boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. But Greg didn't let that distract him. He continued to master his craft, breaking numerous records along the way. So, when the Olympics came to Los Angeles in 1984, he was ready.   On August 8, 1984, Greg competed in the springboard event. He completely destroyed the competition with a tally of 754.41 points -- a full 100 points more than 2nd place! A few days later, he would win another gold medal in the 1-meter platform event where he got the highest score in the history of the sport. Four years later, he would get another two gold medals in these events.   Though Greg Louganis was a world-class athlete, these things matter little when it comes to matters of the heart. While he was competing in LA, he was in an abusive relationship with his business manager Jim Babbitt. Six months before the 1988 Olympics in South Korea, Greg learned that he had contracted HIV from Babbitt. Especially at that time, there was severe stigma around HIV. Admitting his status to the Olympics Committee would likely prevent him from competing. Once it was discovered years later, the Chairman of the Olympics organizing committee said Greg competing in the games was "not morally right."   So, Greg and his inner circle decided to keep his HIV status a secret. His coach Ron O'Brien would later say, “We knew that the risk of his spreading the virus through an open cut was infinitesimal, and besides, how many times does a diver – much less Greg Louganis – get wounded? We thought it best to keep his condition to ourselves.”   But, as luck would have it, Greg did hurt himself at the 1988 Olympics by hitting his head while diving. While it wasn't a serious injury, it did create a gash on his head. He bled into the pool and the team doctor had to close the wound. After he finished addressing the cut, Greg realized that the doctor was not wearing gloves. Fortunately, when Greg made his story public in 1995 everyone involved in this situation tested negative. But that really highlights the stigma that still exists around HIV, doesn't it? Even when writing this, I have to actively prevent myself from falling into the HIV hysteria trap. Numerous medical experts will tell us that mere skin contact with bodily fluids from an HIV positive person is not enough to allow infection. It's not that it's just highly unlikely, there's never been a single case. Our skin does what it is designed to do -- protect us from bacteria and disease. For infection to occur, there needs to be an open cut of some sort. But that doesn't stop our minds from fearing that the disease is so much more contagious than it actually is. Clearly, we have much more work to do with rejecting this narrative of fear.   It's precisely this narrative of fear that Greg Louganis is fighting. In his 1995 autobiography Breaking the Surface, Greg Louganis officially announced to the world that he was an HIV-positive gay man. Though there was some criticism, the response was mostly supportive. He continues to be an AIDS activist and remains involved in American Olympic endeavors. Today he lives with his husband and many dogs. Sources: "50 stunning Olympic moments No20: Greg Louganis's perfect dive 1988." The Guardian. Mar 28, 2012. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/blog/2012/mar/28/greg-louganis-50-stunning-olympic-moments Greg Louganis website http://greglouganis.com/ " ''The Truth Shall Set You Free' . . ." Los Angeles Times. Feb 28, 1995. http://articles.latimes.com/1995-02-28/news/ls-37032_1_greg-louganis/2   Image Credits "Boa constrictor" by Squamata55 through Flickr (CC 2.0) https://www.flickr.com/photos/32152408@N05/3016201088 "Atos at the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi looking at Bolshoy Arena with Olympic rings" by Atos through Flickr (CC 2.0) https://www.flickr.com/photos/atosorigin/12568057033   Music Credits: "Crimson Fly" by Huma-Huma; accessed through YouTube Audio Library

Bruce

Bruce

 

Surviving the gay Holocaust

Rudolf Brazda was born in Germany to Czech parents. His father was a coal miner who died in a work accident when Rudolf was a young boy. Though homosexuality was technically a crime in Germany before Hitler rose to power under Paragraph 175, it was not widely enforced in the Weimar Republic. In the relative tolerance of the Weimar Republic, Rudolf Brazda lived openly with his partner and subletted a room from a Jehovah's Witness lady who apparently had no problem with his sexuality. However, very soon after the Nazis came to power in the 1930s life became very difficult for gay men in Germany. Fortunately, lesbians were spared the horrors of the Nazi regime. Paragraph 175 only criminalized homosexual acts between men. In 1934, a special unit of the Gestapo was set up to find and arrest homosexuals. They set up a network of informants, raided meeting places, and seized address books to find additional suspects. If none of that was successful, those charged with homosexuality were tortured until they named everyone else that they knew. These people were then arrested and the process started all over again. Rudolf Brazda was one of these people caught up in the Nazi plot to design a master race. During his trials, love letters and poems were presented as the evidence against him. Brazda was sentenced to prison twice for "debauchery between men" and sent to the Buchenwald concentration camp in August 1942. He was one of 650 gay men there forced to wear a pink triangle. If you’re not familiar with the symbol of a pink upside down triangle, you should be. All concentration camp victims were forced to wear a triangle on their uniform. The color of the triangle was used to identify why the person was in prison. Jews had two yellow triangles inverted to make a star. Communists wore upside down red triangles, Romani men forced to wear brown triangles, and gay men forced to wear pink triangles. The pink triangle was originally meant to shame its wearer, but it has since been reclaimed by the LGBT community. Today it is an international sign of the gay community and gay rights. There is estimated to have been up to 1.2 million homosexuals in Germany under the Nazi regime. Perhaps more than 100,000 of them were arrested and charged. 10 to 15 thousand gay men were sentenced to concentration camps by the Nazis. There, they were forced to do hard labor under the most horrendous conditions. And those were the lucky ones. While thousands like Rudolf Brazda were sent to concentration camps where an estimated 60% were killed. Along with other Holocaust victims, many gay men were experimented on by Nazi doctors. Some were castrated while others were forced to receive hormones in attempt to "convert" them to heterosexuality. When the Allied army liberated Buchenwald in 1945, Brazda was set free. However, this was not a happy fate shared by all gay men upon liberation by the Allies. Some were merely moved from concentration camps to normal prisons and forced to serve out their sentence. In 1957, the Supreme Court ruled that homosexuals arrested by the Nazis were legitimately incarcerated. They were considered criminals until 1969. Up until very recently, the German government withheld monetary compensation available to other Holocaust survivors. After the war, Rudolf met who would become his lifelong partner Edouard "Edi" Mayer. They lived together openly in France until Edi died in 2003. In 2011, Rudolf Brazda passed away at the old age of 98. He was cremated and his ashes placed next to Edi's. Before his death a researcher had asked Brazda for any life lessons he had learned. Despite the horrors he had experienced, he merely replied: “God gave me the gift of the homosexual life.”     Sources: "Holocaust: Gay activists press for German apology" The Independent. Nov 1, 1997. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/holocaust-gay-activists-press-for-german-apology-1291337.html "Last homosexual concentration camp survivor dies at 98" Jerusalem Post. Aug 6, 2011. http://www.jpost.com/International/Last-homosexual-concentration-camp-survivor-dies-at-98 "Nazi concentration camp badge" on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camp_badge "Persecution of Homosexuals" on US Holocaust Memorial Museum https://www.ushmm.org/learn/students/learning-materials-and-resources/homosexuals-victims-of-the-nazi-era/persecution-of-homosexuals "Rudolf Brazda dies; gay man who survived Nazi concentration camp was 98" Washington Post. Aug 7, 2011. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/rudolf-brazda-dies-gay-man-who-survived-nazi-concentration-camp-was-98/2011/08/05/gIQAUlb90I_story.html?utm_term=.cabc24c9c2ad "Rudolf Brazda dies at 98; survivor of Nazis' persecution of gays" LA Times. Aug 5, 2011. http://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-rudolf-brazda-20110805-story.html "Rudolf Brazda, Who Survived Pink Triangle, Is Dead at 98" New York Times. Aug 5, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/06/world/europe/06brazda.html?hpw   Image Credits "In memory of homosexual" photographed by Gorodilova through Wikimedia (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:In_memory_of_homosexual.JPG "Prisoners in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen" by Marion Doss through Flickr (CC 2.0) https://www.flickr.com/photos/ooocha/2613626389 "Survivors of the european nazi camps, after their arrival at the Atlit reception camp 2" by Israeli Government Press Office through Wikimedia (CC 3.0) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flickr_-_Government_Press_Office_(GPO)_-_survivors_of_the_european_nazi_camps,_after_their_arrival_at_the_Atlit_reception_camp_2.jpg "Rudolf BRAZDA - April 15th 2009" by Jean-Luc Schwab through Wikimedia (CC 3.0) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudolf_BRAZDA_-_April_15th_2009.jpg   Music Credits: "Pioneers" by Audionautix; accessed through YouTube Audio Library

Bruce

Bruce

 

Michelangelo's Muse

484 years ago today, arguably the great love of Michelangelo’s life wrote him a love poem that would rival any between a straight couple. Hello! I’m Bruce Tedder and you’re watching Today in LGBT History.   Historians cannot agree on much, including Michelangelo’s sexuality. Many of his writings, drawings, sculptures, and paintings had overtly homosexual overtones. There were always accusations, even by members of Michelangelo’s own extended family. But it was a title that Michelangelo never seemed to have fully embraced. But then again, why are titles so important anyway? It’s human nature to try to put other people in boxes; to file that person away as one stereotype or another. But that’s not an accurate way to look at other people. Every single one of us, we are all much more complicated than titles allow. But here’s what we do know about Michelangelo: he and Tommaso dei Cavalieri were clearly in love. Over the decades, Michelangelo created scores of artworks dedicated to him. One of my favorite of his sonnets dedicated to Cavalieri states that "Love is not always a harsh and deadly sin." (Poem 260) Though Cavalieri was 34 years younger than Michelangelo, he obviously returned his affections. On August 2, 1533, he wrote to Michelangelo, saying “I flee from evil deeds, and wish to flee them, for I cannot make love with anyone but you.” Despite Michelangelo’s apparent homosexuality, he was one of the most celebrated artists in not only his lifetime, but in history. He was probably one of the first celebrities and his expertise was highly sought after. He worked for a total of 9 Catholic Popes and even designed perhaps the most important Christian church in the world -- St. Peter's Basilica. When Michelangelo died in 1564, his devoted lover Tommaso dei Cavalieri was by his side. Unfortunately, don’t know much about happened to Cavalieri after this point, but their relationship remains one that we can learn from today. The love between these two men did not fit neatly into any box. As is so often the case, no titles were sufficient. Historians will try to whitewash, or even worse demonize, their relationship. But those arguments are not fair to the memory of these two people. Love is love and we need to stop trying to put that into neat boxes that fit into our individual narratives. Thank you for watching today’s episode of Today in LGBT History. If you learned something today, give the video a thumbs up and subscribe for new videos like this every day. Tomorrow we will be looking at Rudolf Brazda, the last known Holocaust survivor who was in a concentration camp because of his sexuality.   Sources: "9 Things You May Not Know About Michelangelo." By Evan Andrews on history.com http://www.history.com/news/9-things-you-may-not-know-about-michelangelo "Homosexuality and Civilization" By Louis Crompton. Page 274. Accessed through Google Books https://books.google.com/books?id=TfBYd9xVaXcC&pg=PA274&lpg=PA274 Rictor Norton, "The Passions of Michelangelo", Gay History and Literature, updated 14 June 2008 <http://rictornorton.co.uk/michela.htm>. "Sonnets of Michelangelo Buonarroti, now for the first time translated into rhymed English" translated by John Addington and published in 1904 in London by Smith, Elder, & Co and in New York by C. Scribner's Sons. Accessed through archive.org https://archive.org/details/cu31924014269975

Bruce

Bruce

 

Founding of the first gay rights political organization

56 years ago today, one of the first organizations was formed to lobby for gay rights.  Hello! I’m Bruce Tedder and this is Today in LGBT History.   On August 1st, 1961, about half a dozen gay men, led by Frank Kameny, met at the Hay Adams Hotel to create what would become the Mattachine Society of Washington. 
Strange name, right? It comes from medieval France where a group of unmarried townspeople who were never seen in public without masks. The group would perform dances and sometimes were the only people in society to publicly protest oppression. They called themselves “Société Mattachine.” When a gay rights group focusing on cultural issues was created in California in the early 1950s, its founders identified with the French group, saying “Gays were also a masked people, unknown and anonymous, who might become engaged in morale building and helping ourselves and others, through struggle, to move toward total redress and change.”  So when Kameny was searching for a name for the organization, it made sense to borrow the name from the Californian organization even though the two groups were not officially connected. The name Mattachine Society was both not well known to the public but identifiable to members of the gay community. However, it was also identifiable to federal and DC police. Even at this very first meeting, the head of the Perversion Section of the DC Police Department’s Morals Division, Louis Fouchette, snuck in. However, he was quickly identified and forced to leave. I mean, come on man. When the meeting consists of only six people that already know each other, do you really think that you can just blend in? But that was the stakes that these people faced merely for creating a gay organization. They couldn’t even put their real names on the membership lists because they would have been fired if discovered as a homosexual. This had already happened for Frank Kameny. Fired by the government a few years earlier for being gay, Kameny sued. He argued that being fired for one's sexual orientation is "no less odious than discrimination based upon religious or racial grounds." The case was dismissed by the Supreme Court, but the legal argument formed the basis for the Mattachine Society of Washington. In a press release from August 1962, the group said: “It is time that a strong initiative be taken to obtain for the homosexual minority – a minority in no way different, as such, from other of our national minority groups – the same rights, provided in the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, as are guaranteed to all other citizens. These include the rights to the pursuit of happiness and to equality of opportunity; the right, as human beings, to develop and achieve their full potential and dignity; and the right, as citizens, to be allowed to make their maximum contribution to the society in which they live – rights which Federal policy and practice now deny." Sounds pretty reasonable, right? For many, this was a completely radical idea. For others, it was a threat to the "health, welfare, and morals" of the city. Democratic Congressman from Texas John Dowdy even introduced a bill to prevent the Mattachine Society from operating within the District of Columbia. But they fought on. They made progress on employment discrimination, helped to remove the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder, and was the first gay-rights group to protest at the White House, Pentagon, and many other government institutions. In 1971, Frank Kameny ran for Congress and it was all hands on deck for the gay community in DC. The Mattachine Society was basically folded into Kameny's campaign, so when Kameny lost the election the group was disbanded in its previous form. The key players soon formed a new organization which became known as the Gay and Lesbian Activist Alliance and is still in existence. Their website is below.  In recent years, the name has reemerged with The Mattachine Society of Washington, DC which focuses on preserving LGBT history. Their website is below.    Thank you for watching today’s episode of Today in LGBT History. If you learned something today, give the video a thumbs up and subscribe for new videos like this every day. Tomorrow we will be looking at the romantic musings of one of history's greatest artists whose works are featured in some of the world's greatest churches. Before we say goodbye, let me pass the question off to you in the comments below. Are there employment non-discrimination laws in place where you live? Gay and Lesbian Activist Alliance Website -- http://glaa.org/ Mattachine Society of Washington, DC Website -- https://mattachinesocietywashingtondc.org/   Sources: "Gay rights epicenter named landmark." USA Today https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-02-27-gay-rights-home_N.htm "House Group Continues Homosexuality Hearing." Washington Post accessed through Gay and Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest https://www.glapn.org/sodomylaws/usa/dc/dcnews03.htm "Mattachine Founded 50 Years Ago." Washington Blade http://www.washingtonblade.com/2011/11/10/mattachine-founded-50-years-ago/ "Mattachine Society." Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mattachine_Society#Naming  

Bruce

Bruce

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